Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: a report of 46 patients including a clinicopathologic study of prognostic factors
- Disease management
The clinical and pathologic features of 46 patients from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) were studied. Only two (5%) among 40 evaluable treatments were assessed to be effective. Some prognostic factors of LAM were recognized. A reduction of the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio was a poor prognostic factor at 2 yr after the first examination, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). An increase in the percentage of predicted total lung capacity (%TLC) correlated with a poor prognosis at 2, 3, and 5 yr after the first examination, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Histologically, two types of pulmonary lesions were observed; a predominantly cystic type and a predominantly muscular type. Patients with predominantly cystic LAM lesions showed a tendency to a poor prognosis from 2 to 5 yr after the biopsy. Among open lung biopsy findings, higher grades of abnormal areas were unfavorable as a prognostic factor from 2 to 5 yr after the biopsy, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Higher grades of cystic lesions correlated inversely with survival at 2, 4, and 5 yr after the lung biopsy, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05).